Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment

Instruction

As a District, we are continually refining our practices in the classroom to provide high quality instruction and learning.  Differentiation is a way of looking at instruction in the classroom and much of the research in this ares comes to us by Carol Ann Tomlinson.  "What we call differentiation is not a recipe for teaching. It is not an instructional strategy. It is not what a teacher does when he or she has time. It is a way of thinking about teaching and learning. It is a philosophy. As such, it is based on a set of beliefs: Students who are the same age differ in their readiness to learn, their interests, their styles of learning, their experiences, and their life circumstances.

The differences in students are significant enough to make a major impact on what students need to learn, the pace at which they need to learn it, and the support they need from teachers and others to learn it well.

  • Students will learn best when supportive adults push them slightly beyond where they can work without assistance.
  • Students will learn best when they can make a connection between the curriculum and their interests and life experiences.
  • Students will learn best when learning opportunities are natural.
  • Students are more effective learners when classrooms and schools create a sense of community in which students feel significant and respected.
  • The central job of schools is to maximize the capacity of each student.

By definition, differentiation is a variety of approaches to teaching and learning. Standard-issue students are rare, and educational approaches that ignore academic diversity in favor of standardization are likely to be counterproductive in reaching the full range of learners.

Differentiation must be a refinement of, not a substitute for, high-quality curriculum and instruction. Expert or distinguished teaching focuses on the understandings and skills of a discipline, causes students to wrestle with profound ideas, calls on students to use what they learn in important ways, helps students organize and make sense of ideas and information, and aids students in connecting the classroom with a wider world (Brandt, 1998; Danielson, 1996; Schlechty, 1997; Wiggins & McTighe, 1998).

Differentiation—one facet of expert teaching—reminds us that these things are unlikely to happen for the full range of students unless curriculum and instruction fit each individual, unless students have choices about what to learn and how, unless students take part in setting learning goals, and unless the classroom connects with the experiences and interest of the individual (Tomlinson, 1995, 1999).

Assessment

A balanced assessment approach allows for learning to occur with feedback that is formative and summative.  Formative assessment is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures employed by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment.  It typically involves qualitative feedback (rather than scores) for both student and teacher that focuses on the details of content and performance.  This feedback allows students to understand where improvements are needed and how they can take corrective action to learn the necessary content.  It is commonly contrasted with summative assessment, which seeks to monitor educational outcomes, often for purposes of external accountability, and for grading purposes.

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